The Contributions of Ambrose, Jerome and Augustine

Ambrose was one of the earliest of the church fathers. He became Bishop of Milan by popular acclaim. He was a great expository preacher and was known to oppose the emperor if asked to do something he thought was wrong. He was the first to put doctrine to music, providing a basis for Christian hymns. He also wrote a great deal of liturgy for the church. Continue reading


William the Conqueror: The Norman Impact upon England

747291In William the Conqueror: the Norman Impact upon England, David Douglas examines the reasons for the Norman Conquest, studies Anglo-Norman history, and outlines the known facts of William’s life.  Douglas supports his arguments with a plethora of sources located in the footnotes and appendices.  He documents the tumultuous era of William’s minority in Normandy and how those events prepared William for his role as duke and eventually king.  Throughout the book Douglas also demonstrates how the conquest was perhaps the most revolutionary event in England prior to the Reformation.  The conquest changed the monarchy, created a new style of feudalism, and developed new political and intellectual ideas.
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The History of the English People 1000–1154

1227928In The History of the English People 1000–1154, Henry of Huntingdon tells the story of the decline of the English kingdom, the Norman invasion, and the establishment of Norman rule after the victory at the Battle of Hastings.  He chronicles the reigns of each king from William the Conqueror to Stephen.  Henry includes every aspect of medieval life: murder, courtly intrigue, treachery, miracles, and saints.  His work contains the first written record of Cnut confronting the ocean’s waves and the death of Henry I from eating too many lampreys.  The author’s overarching interpretation of history is that man’s pride and glory are worthless, since man is nothing without God.
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The Ecclesiastical History of the English People


The Ecclesiastical History of the English People offers a glimpse into English history from Caesar’s invasion in 55 BC to Bede’s life c. 731 AD.  While Bede’s narrative documents English history, his primary focus is the conflict between the Christian Church and paganism.  Bede tells how Augustine brought Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons in 597, how pagans opposed the spread of Christianity in the various regions, and how ultimately the Council of Whitby was a major turning point in English history.  Bede typifies his era by demonstrating tales of the miraculous and heavily disputing the correct way to calculate the date for Easter.  Bede also openly advances his own views on politics and religion throughout the book.
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The City of God

Saint_Augustine_PortraitThe City of God was written to refute the charge that Christians were to blame for the sack of Rome.  In books one through five, Augustine tells the history of Rome from its founding to AD 408 and refutes pagan arguments such as the assumption that Rome had thrived when the Roman gods were still worshipped.  He shows that Christians are faithful taxpayers, take care of their families, and are peaceable.  In the next five books Augustine points out the inconsistencies in pagan beliefs while demonstrating the truth of Christianity.  In the latter twelve books Augustine broadens his argument to a general discussion of good and evil represented by earthly and heavenly cities.  
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The Amazing Woman—Condoleezza Rice

800px-Condoleezza_Rice_croppedEver since the 1960s, African Americans have been seeking affirmation of their equality in modern America.  However, it is still very rare for an African American to push beyond all limited to rise to the top, but that is exactly what one woman did—Condoleezza Rice.  In Antonia Felix’s book, Condi: The Condoleezza Rice Story, the author’s main goal was to study Condi’s background in order to provide America with the perfect picture of this powerful woman who dominated American politics in the early 2000s.[1]

Felix’s portrayal of Condi’s life as a young child emphasizes the great stability that her family provided for her.  Throughout her childhood and young adult life, her parents supported her wishes and dreams which changed over time.  Felix places a great weight on family traditions and proper nurturing that helped provide Condi with excellent qualities that would aid her in her future careers.[2] Continue reading

What events led to the Glorious Revolution of 1688?

1-william-maryThe Glorious Revolution of 1688, a continuation of the English civil war, is one of the most spectacular events in history.  Prior to the Glorious Revolution, England reinstated the monarchy with Charles II in hopes of ending the civil war.  However, several events checked the renewed monarchy and eventually caused the revolution: the popish plot, James II’s son, and the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Continue reading

Freedoms lost under Napoleon

napoleon-bonaparteThe main political principle that France gave up under Napoleon’s rule was freedom on the individual, regional, and religious levels.

On the individual level, first there was no freedom of education.  No women or poor men could attend the lycees because there was a high tuition and an entrance examination.  The schools were also centralized in Paris.  Second, in business, a person did have the freedom to change jobs, but all power lay in the hands of the employers, not the employees.  Third, the people were not socially equal anymore, because the elite bourgeoisie rose in prominence and a different elite group of aristocrats returned.  Fourth, the freedom of speech for the intellectuals was sacrificed.  If someone didn’t agree with Napoleon’s ideas, then he was exiled.  No intellectia allowed.  Fifth, the people suffered politically. There was no bill of rights or habeas corpus.  While universal manhood suffrage existed, there were no direct elections.  There were plebiscites but Napoleon manipulated the timing of them. Continue reading

Spanish Power under King Philip II

MOU52694Spain was a major power under Philip II in four ways: religiously, politically, economically, and commercially.

Religiously, Spain was a staunch Catholic nation.  The Inquisition was notorious and infamous.  Spain wielded her religious powers over the pope, the Spanish Netherlands, France, the Holy Roman Empire, and even England.  Spain fought several religious wars on the continent because Philip II’s goal was to spread Catholicism everywhere.  Missions were established in the New World.  Under Philip II’s reign, Catholicism was the dominant religion in Europe despite the Calvinist and Lutheran rebellions. Continue reading

The Main Organizations of the Civil Rights Era

The Civil Rights Era was a time of turbulence.  Throughout the turmoil and conflict this time presented to the American public, four organizations formed and kept the new hope of the Civil Rights Movement alive.  Playing a key role in the activities of the movement, these organizations—the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)—helped run the various boycotts, protests, sit-ins, and demonstrations that history records during this vital era. Continue reading