The Glorious Revolution of 1688, a continuation of the English civil war, is one of the most spectacular events in history. Prior to the Glorious Revolution, England reinstated the monarchy with Charles II in hopes of ending the civil war. However, several events checked the renewed monarchy and eventually caused the revolution: the popish plot, James II’s son, and the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Continue reading
The main political principle that France gave up under Napoleon’s rule was freedom on the individual, regional, and religious levels.
On the individual level, first there was no freedom of education. No women or poor men could attend the lycees because there was a high tuition and an entrance examination. The schools were also centralized in Paris. Second, in business, a person did have the freedom to change jobs, but all power lay in the hands of the employers, not the employees. Third, the people were not socially equal anymore, because the elite bourgeoisie rose in prominence and a different elite group of aristocrats returned. Fourth, the freedom of speech for the intellectuals was sacrificed. If someone didn’t agree with Napoleon’s ideas, then he was exiled. No intellectia allowed. Fifth, the people suffered politically. There was no bill of rights or habeas corpus. While universal manhood suffrage existed, there were no direct elections. There were plebiscites but Napoleon manipulated the timing of them. Continue reading
Spain was a major power under Philip II in four ways: religiously, politically, economically, and commercially.
Religiously, Spain was a staunch Catholic nation. The Inquisition was notorious and infamous. Spain wielded her religious powers over the pope, the Spanish Netherlands, France, the Holy Roman Empire, and even England. Spain fought several religious wars on the continent because Philip II’s goal was to spread Catholicism everywhere. Missions were established in the New World. Under Philip II’s reign, Catholicism was the dominant religion in Europe despite the Calvinist and Lutheran rebellions. Continue reading
In 1698, after three wars, Louis XIV of France was tired of fighting. The other European countries agreed to a peaceful partitioning of land in order to avoid future war. Continue reading
Muhammad made several concessions to the Jews, Christians, and Arabs in an attempt to make them accept Islam. He made these concessions because he desired to expand the Islamic faith and promote his doctrine. Some of the concessions only promoted hostility from the Muslims and the other peoples. He threw out some of the concessions and returned to his original revelations. Continue reading
The Doctrine of Abrogation in the Koran originated when Muhammed claimed that Muslims should worship the three daughters of Allah. After realizing his mistake, he denounced those quotes. Since then, a thousand verses have been abrogated (deleted) from the Koran. These verses are claimed to have come from Satanic temptations. Some of the verses were from the concessions Muhammed made to the Jews, Christians, and Arabs. Continue reading
The Abbasid Golden Age from A.D. 755-833 was a time when Muslim culture, art, and literature were at its peak. The Koran had already been compiled so schools and universities were founded to study the Koran and the Hadith. Since the main library cities had been conquered, Muslim literature flourished. Poets and philosophers made names for themselves. Militarily, the Muslims had reached the height of expansion. Through conquest they had taken the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa, and the Middle East, and they stood on the borders of India. Constantinople was in their pay. The caliphs brought reforms through universal taxation and the postal system. Walid began the start of the Golden Age and Al-Mu’tasim finished it. Looking back today, scholars still hold that art, society, literature, and culture have never been higher for the Muslims than this window of time.
– Hannah S. Bowers
In 861 the Abbasid caliphate held the Middle East, but because of the power of the Turkish mercenaries and the viziers, the caliphate began to collapse. The mercenaries controlled twelve caliphs; six were murdered and six were imprisoned, blinded, or tortured. Because the Persians had become powerful, the caliphate invited them to take out the Turkish mercenaries. The Persian Buyids moved in and took over the empire. The Seljuk Turks, a newly arrived Turkish family, came into power and were then taken over by the Persian Shahs. War upon war reigned through the empire until the Ottomans finally took over and brought peace. The empire increased in size but the power of the caliphs waned. Throughout this time blood feuds and civil wars continued, religious factions developed like Sufism and Manicheanism, and rebellions in outer territories were the norm. The Middle East fought between three cultures: Arab, Persian, and Turk. In the end, the Arabs were ruled by foreigners until 1923.
– Hannah S. Bowers
In his poem, “Tintern Abbey,” William Wordsworth makes a god out of nature and declares “nature then… / [to] me was all in all.” Wordsworth praises nature for possessing attributes which previously were reserved for God alone. In “Tintern Abbey,” nature exemplifies God’s attributes of omnipresence, omniscience, and omnipotence. Continue reading
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