The Exodus Pharaoh

Image result for amenhotep ii

Question: Which pharaoh ruled Egypt during the Exodus, Thutmose III or Amenhotep II?

Taking the 1446 B.C. date as the time for the Exodus, Thutmose III has been a popular historical choice as the pharaoh of the Exodus. This belief has been widely accepted for years.  The issue of the Exodus pharaoh does not arise from biblical records but rather from Egyptian ones, since the ancient Egyptians would often erase the names and dates of their predecessors. Recently, some of the Egyptian records have been re-examined and new evidence supports the belief that Amenhotep II (1450-1425 B.C.) was the real pharaoh of the Exodus. His timeline answers the questions previously posed by historians who were not satisfied with the Thutmose III choice.  Continue reading

Leroy P. C. McKusick: Civil War Soldier and Musician at Lincoln’s Funeral

McKusick 1Born April 13, 1844 in Limerick, Maine, Leroy Plummer Chase McKusick enlisted in the 2nd Regiment of the District of Columbia Infantry at the beginning of the Civil War. He fought at Bull Run (1861), Antietam (1862), and had his boot heel shot off at Gettysburg (1863). McKusick joined the military band in 1863, playing the solo alto horn until the end of the war in 1865. He played at Abraham Lincoln’s funeral as the band escorted the late president’s body from the Capitol at Washington, D.C. to the railroad station where Lincoln’s body rested in the funeral train before going to Springfield, Illinois.[1]

On August 22, 1867, McKusick married Martha Eleanor Rand of Southport, Maine. They had six children: Mabel Lavinia Baker (1868), Arther Leroy McKusick (1870), Albert Rand McKusick (1875), Meredith Hall McKusick (1878), Jennie Ardelle Lyman (1880), and Forrest Nahum McKusick (1883).[2] One of McKusick’s daughters recorded his war experiences in a letter to his grand-daughter Martha, named for his wife. Continue reading

Recent Historical Findings

Ancient History

European History

American History

An Analysis of Personality Testing

p1The History and Legitimacy of Personality Testing

In America today, personality testing is a growing industry of $400 million, with testing ranging from education to employment to fun online questionnaires (Paul, 2004, xiv).  Personality testing begins in the elementary schools so students can gain admission into certain programs or be diagnosed for academic problems, and it continues on through the professions so people can advance their careers.  The first personality test was designed in the early 1920s to help with personnel selection in the armed forces, but now a plethora of such tests exist.

One of the most famous personality tests is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.  This test “is now given to 2.5 million people each year, and is used by 89 of the companies in the Fortune 100” (Paul, 2004, xiii).  Another widely used personality test is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory which is considered to be reliable and valid by many psychologists.  These two examples of personality tests are used to look at changes in personality, screen job candidates, and diagnose psychological problems.  Many teachers give personality tests in class so children can realize their strengths and learning styles (Personality test, 2013).  Further research claims that the combined results of a number of these personality tests can help teachers “make fairly accurate judgments concerning student progress and change in these areas” (Miller, Linn, & Gronlund, 2009, 36-37). Continue reading

A Philosophy of Biblical Counseling

Biblical counseling is glorifying God by assisting believers in their progressive sanctification through the ministry of God’s sufficient Word by the Holy Spirit.  Counselors themselves should be prepared to counsel by having a ready heart, a pure life, and right relationships with others.  Although formal counseling training is not required, every Christian must be ready to give an answer for the hope that is found only in Christ.

The ultimate purpose of biblical counseling is to glorify God by being conformed to Christ in order to bring exaltation to Him.  Counselors should help believers glorify God—the very reason that God created them, saved them, and is sanctifying them.  Colossians 1:16-17 states that people were created to glorify God – “For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers.  All things were created through Him and for Him.  And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist” (NKJV).  All things were created by Him and for Him.  Romans 8:28-29 further explains that people are being sanctified to glorify God – “And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose.  For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren” (NKJV).  All things work together for a Christian’s good, and this good is conformity to Christ.  Christians conform to Christ in order to exalt His holy name because their changed lives bring Him glory. Continue reading

An Analysis of Intelligence Testing

i1The History of Intelligence Testing

In 1904, French psychologist Alfred Binet created a test to measure the intellectual skills of schoolchildren.  The purpose of Binet’s intelligence test was to determine which children would need special assistance in their classes based on attention, memory, and problem-solving skills (Dearly, 2001, p. 91).  Binet assigned a “mental age” to each child’s score as a measure of intelligence based on the average abilities of children in that age group.  Binet’s original intelligence test formed the basis of modern IQ tests and achievement tests which have changed the face of education and employment.

In 1916 standardized testing based on Binet’s early model became commonly used for American education and acceptance into the military.  Today, the fifth edition of the Stanford-Binet intelligence test consists of five factors divided by two domains: fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory (Miller, Linn, & Gronlund, 2009, p. 428).  In 1955 American psychologist David Wechsler created an intelligence test for adults known as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WEIS).  Wechsler’s test reports a full-scale IQ covering verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed (Miller, Linn, & Gronlund, 2009, pp. 428-429).  Wechsler’s IQ scale replaced the Stanford-Binet scale so test-takers are now compared to those within their own age group instead of the average ability. Continue reading

Guarding the Capital: The Civil War Diary of Almanzo Litchard

imageI finished my master’s thesis on the diary of Almanzo Litchard.  He guarded Washington, D. C. during the first year of the Civil War.  During this time, he visited the Smithsonian, the White House, and Mount Vernon, met President Lincoln, and listened to Congressional debates.  My research adds historical significance to his diary entries as well as telling his life story.

My book can be purchased here.

– Amelia Lloyd-Jones