The Amazing Woman—Condoleezza Rice

800px-Condoleezza_Rice_croppedEver since the 1960s, African Americans have been seeking affirmation of their equality in modern America.  However, it is still very rare for an African American to push beyond all limited to rise to the top, but that is exactly what one woman did—Condoleezza Rice.  In Antonia Felix’s book, Condi: The Condoleezza Rice Story, the author’s main goal was to study Condi’s background in order to provide America with the perfect picture of this powerful woman who dominated American politics in the early 2000s.[1]

Felix’s portrayal of Condi’s life as a young child emphasizes the great stability that her family provided for her.  Throughout her childhood and young adult life, her parents supported her wishes and dreams which changed over time.  Felix places a great weight on family traditions and proper nurturing that helped provide Condi with excellent qualities that would aid her in her future careers.[2] Continue reading


What events led to the Glorious Revolution of 1688?

1-william-maryThe Glorious Revolution of 1688, a continuation of the English civil war, is one of the most spectacular events in history.  Prior to the Glorious Revolution, England reinstated the monarchy with Charles II in hopes of ending the civil war.  However, several events checked the renewed monarchy and eventually caused the revolution: the popish plot, James II’s son, and the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Continue reading

Freedoms lost under Napoleon

napoleon-bonaparteThe main political principle that France gave up under Napoleon’s rule was freedom on the individual, regional, and religious levels.

On the individual level, first there was no freedom of education.  No women or poor men could attend the lycees because there was a high tuition and an entrance examination.  The schools were also centralized in Paris.  Second, in business, a person did have the freedom to change jobs, but all power lay in the hands of the employers, not the employees.  Third, the people were not socially equal anymore, because the elite bourgeoisie rose in prominence and a different elite group of aristocrats returned.  Fourth, the freedom of speech for the intellectuals was sacrificed.  If someone didn’t agree with Napoleon’s ideas, then he was exiled.  No intellectia allowed.  Fifth, the people suffered politically. There was no bill of rights or habeas corpus.  While universal manhood suffrage existed, there were no direct elections.  There were plebiscites but Napoleon manipulated the timing of them. Continue reading

Spanish Power under King Philip II

MOU52694Spain was a major power under Philip II in four ways: religiously, politically, economically, and commercially.

Religiously, Spain was a staunch Catholic nation.  The Inquisition was notorious and infamous.  Spain wielded her religious powers over the pope, the Spanish Netherlands, France, the Holy Roman Empire, and even England.  Spain fought several religious wars on the continent because Philip II’s goal was to spread Catholicism everywhere.  Missions were established in the New World.  Under Philip II’s reign, Catholicism was the dominant religion in Europe despite the Calvinist and Lutheran rebellions. Continue reading

The Main Organizations of the Civil Rights Era

The Civil Rights Era was a time of turbulence.  Throughout the turmoil and conflict this time presented to the American public, four organizations formed and kept the new hope of the Civil Rights Movement alive.  Playing a key role in the activities of the movement, these organizations—the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)—helped run the various boycotts, protests, sit-ins, and demonstrations that history records during this vital era. Continue reading

Explain the tension cultural relativism creates in anthropologists researching human culture. How can a Christian use cultural relativism effectively and biblically?

Cultural relativism is viewing a culture by its own norms without any ethnocentrism coming into play.  Researchers have a difficult time divorcing their own cultural beliefs from the one they are studying.  Once this hurdle is overcome, several other factors must be evaluated, one of which is human rights.  Are human rights universal or do they fluctuate from society to society? Continue reading

What religious concessions to Jews, Christians, and Arabs did Muhammad make, or attempt, to encourage their adoption of Islam?

Muhammad made several concessions to the Jews, Christians, and Arabs in an attempt to make them accept Islam.  He made these concessions because he desired to expand the Islamic faith and promote his doctrine.  Some of the concessions only promoted hostility from the Muslims and the other peoples.  He threw out some of the concessions and returned to his original revelations.  Continue reading

What is the Doctrine of Abrogation in the Koran?

The Doctrine of Abrogation in the Koran originated when Muhammed claimed that Muslims should worship the three daughters of Allah.  After realizing his mistake, he denounced those quotes.  Since then, a thousand verses have been abrogated (deleted) from the Koran.  These verses are claimed to have come from Satanic temptations.  Some of the verses were from the concessions Muhammed made to the Jews, Christians, and Arabs.  Continue reading